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Original research article
Maternal and fetal outcomes in pregnant women with heart failure
  1. Angie T Ng1,
  2. Lewei Duan2,
  3. Theresa Win1,
  4. Hillard T Spencer3,
  5. Ming-Sum Lee1
  1. 1 Division of Cardiology, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, California, USA
  2. 2 Department of Research and Evaluation, Kaiser Permanente Southern California, Pasadena, California, USA
  3. 3 Southern California Permanente Medical Group, Los Angeles, California, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Ming-Sum Lee, Division of Cardiology, Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA 90027, USA; mingsum.lee{at}kp.org

Footnotes

  • Contributors Study concept and design: AT-YN and M-SL. Acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data: AT-YN, LD, TW and M-SL. Drafting of the manuscript: AT-YN, HTS and M-SL. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: AT-YN, LD, HTS and M-SL. Statistical analysis: LD and M-SL. Administrative, technical or material support: AT-YN, LD and TW. Study supervision: M-SL. All authors have access to the data and share responsibility for the published material.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval The research protocol used in this study was reviewed and approved by the Kaiser Permanente Institutional Review Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Footnotes

  • Contributors Study concept and design: AT-YN and M-SL. Acquisition, analysis or interpretation of data: AT-YN, LD, TW and M-SL. Drafting of the manuscript: AT-YN, HTS and M-SL. Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: AT-YN, LD, HTS and M-SL. Statistical analysis: LD and M-SL. Administrative, technical or material support: AT-YN, LD and TW. Study supervision: M-SL. All authors have access to the data and share responsibility for the published material.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval The research protocol used in this study was reviewed and approved by the Kaiser Permanente Institutional Review Board.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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