Introduction Myocardial infraction (MI) leads to complex changes in left ventricular (LV) haemodynamics. It remains unknown how four-dimensional (4D) acute changes in LV-cavity blood flow kinetic energy (KE) affect LV remodelling. We hypothesised that LV blood flow energetics is independently associated with adverse LV-remodelling.
Methods We recruited 69 revascularised ST-elevation MI patients. All patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) at 1.5 T within 48 hours and at 3 months. CMR included cines, early/late gadolinium enhancement and whole-heart 4D flow. CMR analysis included: LV volumes, infarct size (IS,%), microvascular obstruction (MVO,%), two-dimensional, retrospective valve tracking derived mitral inflow metrics and 4D KE components. KE was derived using novel, semi-automated method by using endocardial contours on short-axis cines to extract intra-cavity velocity profile. Adverse LV-remodelling was defined as increase in LV end-diastolic volume by 15%.
Results Thirteen (19%) patients developed adverse LV-remodelling. Demographics were comparable between patients with/without remodelling. Baseline CMR in adverse LV-remodelling-group showed significantly lower EF, LV KE, Systolic, A-wave, in-plane KEs and increased MVO (p<0.05). In stepwise-regression analysis, only acute MVO (beta=0.17±0.06, p<0.05) and acute A-wave KE (beta=−0.17±0.08, p<0.05) independently predicted adverse remodelling at 3 months. A regression-model comprising of acute MVO and A-wave KE had high predictive value for adverse LV-remodelling (area under the curve=0.82, 95% confidence interval=0.7–0.9, p<0.001).
Conclusion LV haemodynamic assessment by novel, semi-automated, 4D KE mapping adds incremental value to predict adverse LV-remodelling. A-wave KE and MVO size early after acute MI are independently associated with adverse LV-remodelling.
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