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Forty-year-old man with dyspnoea, haemoptysis and night sweats


Clinical introduction A 40-year-old man presented with a 1-month history of night sweats, haemoptysis, dyspnoea and weight loss. He had never smoked. Physical examination was unremarkable. He was haemodynamically stable. He was anaemic with a haemoglobin of 10 g/L and his D-dimer was elevated at 1.32 µg/mL.

A 12 lead ECG showed sinus rhythm with no abnormalities. A chest radiograph (CXR) was performed (figure 1A). Transthoracic echocardiography revealed normal right ventricular size and systolic function with a step-up, distally, in pulmonary arterial (PA) velocity from 0.7 m/s to 3.2 m/s.

A CT pulmonary angiogram (CTPA) (figure 1B,C) was subsequently performed. The findings of the CTPA prompted further assessment with a positron emission tomography (PET)-CT (figure 1D).

Question What is the likely diagnosis? 

  1. Right upper lobe bronchopneumonia.

  2. Submassive pulmonary embolism.

  3. Right upper lobe squamous cell carcinoma.

  4. Primary pulmonary artery angiosarcoma.

  5. Giant cell pulmonary arteritis.

  • positron emission tomographic (pet) imaging
  • endovascular procedures for aortic and vascular disease
  • secondary pulmonary hypertension
  • palliative care
  • cardiac catheterization and angiography

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