Clinical introduction A 14-year-old boy presented with history of decreased appetite and bilateral swelling of feet for 6 months. He did not give any associated history of orthopnoea or paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea. He was born by a normal delivery after a non-consanguineous marriage. He had an unremarkable birth and childhood health history. There was no family history of significant cardiovascular illness or sudden death. Clinical examination showed an average built boy with elevated jugular venous pressure with prominent v wave and bilateral pitting pedal oedema. Cardiovascular examination showed normal first (S1) and second (S2) heart sounds and a short early systolic murmur over tricuspid region. Other systems examination was remarkable for soft tender hepatomegaly.
ECG showed sinus rhythm with tall, peaked p waves. Chest X-ray revealed enlargement along the right cardiac border. Transthoracic echocardiographic images are shown in figure 1A (apical four-chamber view) and figure 1B (tricuspid inflow Doppler). There was no colour Doppler evidence of interatrial shunt.
Question What is the most likely diagnosis of his condition?
Endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF)
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD)
Idiopathic dilatation of right atrium
- cardiac imaging and diagnostics
- myocardial disease
- medical education
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Contributors GCG was involved in writing, editing and management of the patient. AS was involved in editing the writing of the manuscript. OKG was involved in the management of the patient and overall supervision of writing the article.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.