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Original research article
Cardiac implantable electronic devices in adults with tetralogy of Fallot
  1. Alexander C Egbe,
  2. William R Miranda,
  3. Malini Madhavan,
  4. Naser M Ammash,
  5. Venkata R Missula,
  6. Mohammed Al-Otaibi,
  7. Ayotola Fatola,
  8. Srikanth Kothapalli,
  9. Heidi M Connolly
  1. Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alexander C Egbe, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester MN 55905, USA; cegbe2001{at}


Background Tachyarrhythmias and bradyarrhythmias affect 20%–50% of adult patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) and some of these patients will require cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) such as pacemaker and/or internal cardioverter defibrillator.

Methods The Mayo Adult Congenital Heart Disease database was queried for patients with repaired TOF and history of CIED implantation, 1990–2017. The study objectives were: (1) determine the occurrence of device-related complications defined as lead failure, lead recall, device infection and lead thrombus; and (2) determine the occurrence and risk factors for defibrillator shock.

Results There were 99 patients (age 46±14 years and 66 (66%) men) with CIED, and the CIEDs were 41 (41%) pacemakers and 73 (73%) defibrillators. Indication for defibrillator implantation was for primary prevention in 28 (38%) and secondary prevention in 45 (62%). Device-related complications occurred in 20 (20%) patients (lead failure 17, lead recall 4, device infection 12 and thrombus 3). Twenty-five per cent of all device infections occurred within 30 days from the time of device generator change. Annualised rates of appropriate and inappropriate shocks were 5.7% and 6.2%, respectively. The use of class III antiarrhythmic drug was protective against defibrillator shock.

Conclusion The current study provides useful outcome data to aid patient counselling and clinical decision-making. Further studies are required to explore ways to decrease the risk of postprocedural infection after device generator change, and to determine which patients will benefit from empirical antiarrhythmic therapy as a strategy to decrease incidence of inappropriate defibrillator shock.

  • tetralogy of Fallot

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  • Funding ACE is supported by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI; grant K23 HL141448-01).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval Mayo Clinic Institutional Review Board

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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