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What is ‘normal’ left ventricular ejection fraction?
  1. Sarah Hudson1,
  2. Stephen Pettit2
  1. 1 Department of Cardiology, Bristol Heart Institute, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, BS2 8HW, United Kingdom
  2. 2 Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Unit, Royal Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, CB2 0AY, United Kingdom
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sarah Hudson, Bristol Heart Institute, University Hospitals Bristol NHS Foundation Trust, Bristol, BS2 8HW, UK; sarahhudsonuk{at}

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Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) has been a key variable for the diagnosis and management of heart failure over the last three decades. The British Society of Echocardiography recently updated their normal reference intervals for assessment of cardiac dimensions and function.1 They describe four categories of left ventricular function and a ‘normal’ LVEF is defined as ≥55%.

Categorisation of LVEF has become confusing with wide variation between international societies in their reporting guidelines. Categories of the American Society of Echocardiography and European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging,2 European Society of Cardiology3 and the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association4 are summarised …

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  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, conduct, reporting or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.