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Instantaneous pressure-flow relationships in aortic stenosis
  1. Catherine M Otto1,
  2. Javier Bermejo2
  1. 1 Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  2. 2 Cardiology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañon, Madrid, Spain
  1. Correspondence to Professor Catherine M Otto, Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195, USA; cmotto{at}

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To the Editor

We read with interest the paper on first-phase ejection fraction (EF1) in aortic stenosis (AS) but have some questions about both the concept of EF1 and the technical details of how EF1 can be measured in clinical practice. 1 First, it seems challenging to match the time-to-peak velocity on the Doppler AS jet to a specific 2D image frame for measuring EF1. How reproductible is this measurement given the need to identify the timing of peak velocity and match to 2D images? Second, what is the effect of …

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  • Contributors All authors contributed to this article.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.

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