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Original research
Fried-food consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis of observational studies
  1. Pei Qin1,2,
  2. Ming Zhang1,2,
  3. Minghui Han3,
  4. Dechen Liu3,
  5. Xinping Luo1,
  6. Lidan Xu4,
  7. Yunhong Zeng5,
  8. Qing Chen6,
  9. Tieqiang Wang7,
  10. Xiaoliang Chen7,
  11. Qionggui Zhou1,
  12. Quanman Li3,
  13. Ranran Qie3,
  14. Xiaoyan Wu1,
  15. Yang Li1,
  16. Yanyan Zhang1,
  17. Yuying Wu1,
  18. Dongsheng Hu1,2,
  19. Fulan Hu1,2
  1. 1 Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
  2. 2 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Regional Immunity and Diseases, Department of Pathology, Shenzhen University School of Medicine, Shenzhen, China
  3. 3 Department of Epidemiology and Health Statistics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan, China
  4. 4 Department of Nutrition, The Second Affilicated Hospital of Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, Guangdong, China
  5. 5 Department of Health Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Shenzhen Hospital, Shenzhen, China
  6. 6 Department of Mental Health, Bao'an Chronic Diseases Prevent and Cure Hospital, Shenzhen, China
  7. 7 Department of Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen Guangming District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen, China
  1. Correspondence to Fulan Hu, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen 518060, China; hufu1525{at}


Objective We performed a meta-analysis, including dose–response analysis, to quantitatively determine the association of fried-food consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the general adult population.

Methods We searched PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science for all articles before 11 April 2020. Random-effects models were used to estimate the summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs.

Results In comparing the highest with lowest fried-food intake, summary RRs (95% CIs) were 1.28 (1.15 to 1.43; n=17, I2=82.0%) for major cardiovascular events (prospective: 1.24 (1.12 to 1.38), n=13, I2=75.7%; case–control: 1.91 (1.15 to 3.17), n=4, I2=92.1%); 1.22 (1.07 to 1.40; n=11, I2=77.9%) for coronary heart disease (prospective: 1.16 (1.05 to 1.29), n=8, I2=44.6%; case–control: 1.91 (1.05 to 3.47), n=3, I2=93.9%); 1.37 (0.97 to 1.94; n=4, I2=80.7%) for stroke (cohort: 1.21 (0.87 to 1.69), n=3, I2=77.3%; case–control: 2.01 (1.27 to 3.19), n=1); 1.37 (1.07 to 1.75; n=4, I2=80.0%) for heart failure; 1.02 (0.93 to 1.14; n=3, I2=27.3%) for cardiovascular mortality; and 1.03 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.12; n=6, I2=38.0%) for all-cause mortality. The association was linear for major cardiovascular events, coronary heart disease and heart failure.

Conclusions Fried-food consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and presents a linear dose–response relation. However, the high heterogeneity and potential recall and misclassification biases for fried-food consumption from the original studies should be considered.

  • epidemiology
  • meta-analysis

Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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Data availability statement

Data are available upon reasonable request.

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  • PQ and MZ contributed equally.

  • Contributors PQ, FH, MZ and DH designed research; PQ and MH conducted the meta-analysis and drafted the manuscript; PQ and MH analysed the data; DL, XL, LX, YZ, QC, TW, XC, HL, QZ, QL, RQ, XW, YL, YZ, YW, FH, MZ and DH revised the manuscript. FH had primary responsibility for final content. All gave final approval and agreed to be accountable for all aspects of work ensuring integrity and accuracy.

  • Funding This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant numbers 81373074, 81402752 and 81673260); the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (grant number 2017A030313452); the Medical Research Foundation of Guangdong Province (grant number A2017181) and the Science and Technology Development Foundation of Shenzhen (grant numbers CYJ20140418091413562, JCYJ20160307155707264, JCYJ20170412110537191 and JCYJ20170302143855721).

  • Competing interests None declared.

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