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A man in his 60s was hospitalised for dyspnoea with minimal exertion and at rest. His medical history includes hypertension, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, left bundle branch block and congestive heart failure (HF). He had received a cardiac resynchronisation therapy implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) 2 years prior to the current admission, with initial improvement in symptoms, after which he was lost for follow-up. He is currently on a medical regimen that includes a β-blocker, a loop diuretic and an angiotensin receptor blocker. Physical exam reveals elevated jugular venous pressure, crackles at both bases and a third heart sound. The chest X-ray (CXR) is …
Contributors All authors have contributed significantly to the conception, design, writing and review of this manuscript.
Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; internally peer reviewed.
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