Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Cardiovascular considerations for scuba divers
  1. Jason V Tso,
  2. Joshua M Powers,
  3. Jonathan H Kim
  1. Department of Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Jonathan H Kim, Cardiology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia, USA;{at}


As the popularity of scuba diving increases internationally, physicians interacting with divers in the clinical setting must be familiar with the cardiovascular stresses and risks inherent to this activity. Scuba presents a formidable cardiovascular challenge by combining unique environmental conditions with the physiologic demands of underwater exercise. Haemodynamic stresses encountered at depth include increased hydrostatic pressure leading to central shifts in plasma volume coupled with cold water stimuli leading to simultaneous parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic responses. Among older divers and those with underlying cardiovascular risk factors, these physiologic changes increase acute cardiac risks while diving. Additional scuba risks, as a consequence of physical gas laws, include arterial gas emboli and decompression sickness. These pathologies are particularly dangerous with altered sensorium in hostile dive conditions. When present, the appropriate management of patent foramen ovale (PFO) is uncertain, but closure of PFO may reduce the risk of paradoxical gas embolism in divers with a prior history of decompression sickness. Finally, similar to other Masters-level athletes, divers with underlying traditional cardiovascular risk should undergo complete cardiac risk stratification to determine ‘fitness-to-dive’. The presence of undertreated coronary artery disease, occult cardiomyopathy, channelopathy and arrhythmias must all be investigated and appropriately treated in order to ensure diver safety. A patient-centred approach facilitating shared decision-making between divers and experienced practitioners should be utilised in the management of prospective scuba divers.

  • coronary artery disease
  • arrhythmias
  • cardiac
  • risk factors

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Twitter @jasontsomd, @jonathankimmd

  • Contributors All authors contributed to the intellectual design, drafting and critical revision of this manuscript. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was entirely supported by US National Institutes of Health/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute research grant K23 HL128795 (to JHK).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Linked Articles