Objective Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent cause of acute coronary syndrome. Our aim was to assess adverse events at follow-up from a nationwide prospective cohort.
Methods The Spanish Registry on SCAD (SR-SCAD) included patients from 34 hospitals. All coronary angiograms were analysed by two experts. Those cases with doubts regarding the diagnosis of SCAD were excluded. The angiographic SCAD classification by Saw et al was followed. Major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) was predefined as composite of death, myocardial infarction, unplanned revascularisation, SCAD recurrence or stroke. All events were assigned by a Clinical Events Committee.
Results After corelab evaluation, 389 patients were included. Most patients were women (88%); median age 53 years (IQR 47–60). Most patients presented as non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (54%). A type 2 intramural haematoma (IMH) was the most frequent angiographic pattern (61%). A conservative initial management was selected in 78% of patients. At a median time of follow-up of 29 months (IQR 17–38), 46 patients (13%) presented MACCE, mainly driven by reinfarctions (7.6%) and unplanned revascularisations (6.2%). Previous history of hypothyroidism (HR 3.79; p<0.001), proximal vessel involvement (HR 2.69; p=0.009), type 2 IMH (HR 2.12; p=0.037) and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) at discharge (HR 2.18; p=0.042) were independent predictors of MACCE.
Conclusions In this large prospective cohort of patients with SCAD, prognosis was overall favourable, with events mainly driven by reinfarctions or unplanned revascularisations. History of hypothyroidism, proximal vessel involvement, type 2 IMH and DAPT at discharge were associated with MACCE.
Trial registration number NCT03607981.
- acute coronary syndrome
- myocardial infarction
- coronary stenosis
Data availability statement
Data are available upon reasonable request.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.
Twitter @Guimacardio, @RiSanz2020, @macayaten, @helenatmCARDIO, @gveigafernandez, @xacobeflores, @CamachoFreire, @OjedaOjeda18, @drassantos, @teresabastante
Contributors MG-G is responsible for the overall content as the guarantor. MG-G extracted the data, performed the statistical analyses and drafted the manuscript. TB, FA and AS interpreted the results. All other authors participated in data collection and provided a critical review of the manuscript.
Funding This study was partially funded through a Rio Hortega grant by the Carlos III Health Institute assigned to Marcos García-Guimaraes (CM17 / 00267).
Competing interests None declared.
Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.