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Demystifying electrophysiology
  1. Bishoy Hanna,
  2. Nazem Akoum
  1. Electrophysiology Section, Division of Cardiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Bishoy Hanna, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific St., Box 356422, Seattle, Washington 98195-6422, USA; bishoyh{at}

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Clinical cardiac electrophysiology (CCEP) is a rapidly evolving subspecialty of cardiology that remains in its infancy, with many of its guiding principles discovered only in the last few decades by pioneers of the field that remain in clinical practice today. While the number of practising CCEPs in European countries is not readily available, the USA had only 2571 in 2021, fewer than 10% of which were female.1 2

One likely contributor to these surprisingly low figures is the shroud of mystery surrounding CCEP. Many cardiology fellows spend minimal to no time in the electrophysiology (EP) lab, preventing potential candidates from being able to consider it as a career.3 4 The goal of this paper is to take a step in demystifying CCEP, hopefully encouraging some to join us in what we believe to be one of the most rewarding fields of modern medicine.

Training requirements

While requirements vary by country, several years of internal medicine and cardiology training are generally prerequisite to CCEP training. To help standardise training across European countries, the European Heart Rhythm Association …

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  • Contributors BH is the first author of the manuscript. NA is the senior author of the manuscript.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; internally peer reviewed.