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Brugada syndrome: update and future perspectives
  1. E Madelief J Marsman,
  2. Pieter G Postema,
  3. Carol Ann Remme
  1. Departments of Experimental and Clinical Cardiology, Heart Center, Amsterdam UMC Location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Carol Ann Remme, Amsterdam UMC Location AMC, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands; c.a.remme{at}


Brugada syndrome (BrS) is an inherited cardiac disorder, characterised by a typical ECG pattern and an increased risk of arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death (SCD). BrS is a challenging entity, in regard to diagnosis as well as arrhythmia risk prediction and management. Nowadays, asymptomatic patients represent the majority of newly diagnosed patients with BrS, and its incidence is expected to rise due to (genetic) family screening. Progress in our understanding of the genetic and molecular pathophysiology is limited by the absence of a true gold standard, with consensus on its clinical definition changing over time. Nevertheless, novel insights continue to arise from detailed and in-depth studies, including the complex genetic and molecular basis. This includes the increasingly recognised relevance of an underlying structural substrate. Risk stratification in patients with BrS remains challenging, particularly in those who are asymptomatic, but recent studies have demonstrated the potential usefulness of risk scores to identify patients at high risk of arrhythmia and SCD. Development and validation of a model that incorporates clinical and genetic factors, comorbidities, age and gender, and environmental aspects may facilitate improved prediction of disease expressivity and arrhythmia/SCD risk, and potentially guide patient management and therapy. This review provides an update of the diagnosis, pathophysiology and management of BrS, and discusses its future perspectives.

  • arrhythmias
  • cardiac
  • electrophysiology
  • genetics

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  • Contributors All authors drafted the manuscript and made critical contributions to its content.

  • Funding This study was funded by The Netherlands CardioVascular Research Initiative CVON (Dutch Heart Foundation, Dutch Federation of University Medical Centres, ZonMw, and the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences) (PREDICT2 CVON2018-30 to CAR).

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting, or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.