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Inflammatory and thrombotic valvulopathies in autoimmune disease
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  • Published on:
    Valvulopathy in autoimmune disorders as the differential diagnosis of infective endocarditis

    The valvulopathy of autoimmune disorders can simulate infective endocarditis when echocardiography discloses the presence of vegetations on the heart valves[1-4].
    This occurrence was exemplified by valvulitis with vegetations and concurrent congestive heart failure(CHF) as the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus[2]. Blood cultures were sterile.The patient was managed medically with corticosteroid therapy[2].
    In granulomatosis with polyangiitis valvulopathy was exemplified by a patient who presented with pyrexia, dyspnoea, renal failure, and dry gangrene of the toes. Echocardiography revealed a mobile, 7-10 mm vegetation on the chordae of the tricuspid valve. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies against proteinase 3 (PR3-ANCA) were strongly positive(194 EU/mL; Reference Range < 1.99). Renal biopsy showed crescentric glomerulonephritis. Blood cultures were sterile. The patient was successfully managed solely with immunosuppressive therapy[3].
    The valvulopathy of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis was exemplified by a patient who presented with breathlessness and polyarthralgia superimposed on a long history of eosninophilia, asthma, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis. Clinical examination disclosed the presence of systolic murmurs and signs of CHF. Echocardiography revealed a 19 mm x 16 mm vegetation on the aortic valve and a 11 mm x 9 mm vegetation on the mitral valve in association with moderate to severe m...

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    Conflict of Interest:
    None declared.