Article Text

Original research
The role of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing post-COVID-19 thromboembolic and cardiovascular complications
  1. Núria Mercadé-Besora1,2,3,
  2. Xintong Li1,
  3. Raivo Kolde4,
  4. Nhung TH Trinh5,
  5. Maria T Sanchez-Santos1,
  6. Wai Yi Man1,
  7. Elena Roel3,
  8. Carlen Reyes3,
  9. Antonella Delmestri1,
  10. Hedvig M E Nordeng6,7,
  11. Anneli Uusküla8,
  12. Talita Duarte-Salles3,9,
  13. Clara Prats2,
  14. Daniel Prieto-Alhambra1,9,
  15. Annika M Jödicke1,
  16. Martí Català1
  1. 1 Pharmaco- and Device Epidemiology Group, Health Data Sciences, Botnar Research Centre, NDORMS, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
  2. 2 Department of Physics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain
  3. 3 Fundació Institut Universitari per a la recerca a l'Atenció Primària de Salut Jordi Gol i Gurina (IDIAPJGol), IDIAP Jordi Gol, Barcelona, Catalunya, Spain
  4. 4 Institute of Computer Science, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  5. 5 Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety Research Group, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  6. 6 School of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
  7. 7 Division of Mental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Oslo, Norway
  8. 8 Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia
  9. 9 Department of Medical Informatics, Erasmus University Medical Center, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Zuid-Holland, Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Prof Daniel Prieto-Alhambra, Pharmaco- and Device Epidemiology Group, Health Data Sciences, Botnar Research Centre, NDORMS, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; daniel.prietoalhambra{at}ndorms.ox.ac.uk

Abstract

Objective To study the association between COVID-19 vaccination and the risk of post-COVID-19 cardiac and thromboembolic complications.

Methods We conducted a staggered cohort study based on national vaccination campaigns using electronic health records from the UK, Spain and Estonia. Vaccine rollout was grouped into four stages with predefined enrolment periods. Each stage included all individuals eligible for vaccination, with no previous SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 vaccine at the start date. Vaccination status was used as a time-varying exposure. Outcomes included heart failure (HF), venous thromboembolism (VTE) and arterial thrombosis/thromboembolism (ATE) recorded in four time windows after SARS-CoV-2 infection: 0–30, 31–90, 91–180 and 181–365 days. Propensity score overlap weighting and empirical calibration were used to minimise observed and unobserved confounding, respectively.

Fine-Gray models estimated subdistribution hazard ratios (sHR). Random effect meta-analyses were conducted across staggered cohorts and databases.

Results The study included 10.17 million vaccinated and 10.39 million unvaccinated people. Vaccination was associated with reduced risks of acute (30-day) and post-acute COVID-19 VTE, ATE and HF: for example, meta-analytic sHR of 0.22 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.29), 0.53 (0.44 to 0.63) and 0.45 (0.38 to 0.53), respectively, for 0–30 days after SARS-CoV-2 infection, while in the 91–180 days sHR were 0.53 (0.40 to 0.70), 0.72 (0.58 to 0.88) and 0.61 (0.51 to 0.73), respectively.

Conclusions COVID-19 vaccination reduced the risk of post-COVID-19 cardiac and thromboembolic outcomes. These effects were more pronounced for acute COVID-19 outcomes, consistent with known reductions in disease severity following breakthrough versus unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • COVID-19
  • Epidemiology
  • PUBLIC HEALTH
  • Electronic Health Records

Data availability statement

Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available. CPRD: CPRD data were obtained under the CPRD multi-study license held by the University of Oxford after Research Data Governance (RDG) approval. Direct data sharing is not allowed. SIDIAP: In accordance with current European and national law, the data used in this study is only available for the researchers participating in this study. Thus, we are not allowed to distribute or make publicly available the data to other parties. However, researchers from public institutions can request data from SIDIAP if they comply with certain requirements. Further information is available online (https://www.sidiap.org/index.php/menu-solicitudesen/application-proccedure) or by contacting SIDIAP (sidiap@idiapjgol.org). CORIVA: CORIVA data were obtained under the approval of Research Ethics Committee of the University of Tartu and the patient level data sharing is not allowed. All analyses in this study were conducted in a federated manner, where analytical code and aggregated (anonymised) results were shared, but no patient-level data was transferred across the collaborating institutions.

https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) license, which permits others to copy, redistribute, remix, transform and build upon this work for any purpose, provided the original work is properly cited, a link to the licence is given, and indication of whether changes were made. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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Data availability statement

Data may be obtained from a third party and are not publicly available. CPRD: CPRD data were obtained under the CPRD multi-study license held by the University of Oxford after Research Data Governance (RDG) approval. Direct data sharing is not allowed. SIDIAP: In accordance with current European and national law, the data used in this study is only available for the researchers participating in this study. Thus, we are not allowed to distribute or make publicly available the data to other parties. However, researchers from public institutions can request data from SIDIAP if they comply with certain requirements. Further information is available online (https://www.sidiap.org/index.php/menu-solicitudesen/application-proccedure) or by contacting SIDIAP (sidiap@idiapjgol.org). CORIVA: CORIVA data were obtained under the approval of Research Ethics Committee of the University of Tartu and the patient level data sharing is not allowed. All analyses in this study were conducted in a federated manner, where analytical code and aggregated (anonymised) results were shared, but no patient-level data was transferred across the collaborating institutions.

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Footnotes

  • AMJ and MC are joint senior authors.

  • Contributors DPA and AMJ led the conceptualisation of the study with contributions from MC and NM-B. AMJ, TD-S, ER, AU and NTHT adapted the study design with respect to the local vaccine rollouts. AD and WYM mapped and curated CPRD data. MC and NM-B developed code with methodological contributions advice from MTS-S and CP. DPA, MC, NTHT, TD-S, HMEN, XL, CR and AMJ clinically interpreted the results. NM-B, XL, AMJ and DPA wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and all authors read, revised and approved the final version. DPA and AMJ obtained the funding for this research. DPA is responsible for the overall content as guarantor: he accepts full responsibility for the work and the conduct of the study, had access to the data, and controlled the decision to publish.

  • Funding The research was supported by the National Institute for Health and Care Research (NIHR) Oxford Biomedical Research Centre (BRC). DPA is funded through a NIHR Senior Research Fellowship (Grant number SRF-2018–11-ST2-004). Funding to perform the study in the SIDIAP database was provided by the Real World Epidemiology (RWEpi) research group at IDIAPJGol. Costs of databases mapping to OMOP CDM were covered by the European Health Data and Evidence Network (EHDEN).

  • Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, or conduct, or reporting or dissemination plans of this research.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.