Eighty-five survivors who left hospital after pulmonary autograft replacement for severe aortic regurgitation have been followed critically. Five patients died in the first five years and 80 were followed for six to 11 years. Important aortic regurgitation occurred only early and was always related to technical malpositioning of one autograft cusp. Seven patients with fascial pulmonary valves had problems, requiring removal in four. There was a small (2%) morbidity from the right sided homograft and six were removed five to seven years later for progressive calcification; three of these had been irradiated. Despite a high incidence of trivial diastolic murmurs this valve replacement is still preferred for young patients without dilated aortic roots since the survivors remain well, with excellent, maintained relief of outflow obstruction, without problems from haemolysis and thromboembolism, and without deteriorating autograft function or need for anticoagulants. Histology of five autografts examined up to seven years after operation has shown normal living architecture.
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