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Modern atrial and ventricular leads for permanent cardiac pacing.
  1. E J Perrins,
  2. R Sutton,
  3. B Kalebic,
  4. L R Richards,
  5. C Morley,
  6. B Terpstra


    Three hundred and fifteen transvenous pacing leads of various modern designs have been assessed over a period of three years. Of these, 103 were implanted in the atrium and 212 in the ventricle. Screw-in leads in the right atrial appendage and short tined leads in the ventricle have resulted in the virtual elimination of lead displacement, and a very low incidence of other lead related problems. In two lead systems it has been found advantageous to have both leads constructed of urethane.

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