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Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of the normal human fetal heart.
  1. L D Allan,
  2. S K Chita,
  3. W Al-Ghazali,
  4. D C Crawford,
  5. M Tynan


    Pulsed wave Doppler estimates of blood flow velocity were made across the mitral, tricuspid, aortic, and pulmonary valves in a series of 120 normal fetuses (gestational age 16-36 weeks). In 36 of these the data were obtained in all four sites. The maximum and mean velocities were calculated for each valve and these values were plotted against gestational age. There was little change in these values throughout pregnancy. The orifice dimensions of the valves were measured by cross sectional echocardiography. At all ages the tricuspid orifice was larger than the mitral and the pulmonary orifice was larger than the aortic. The blood flow values for each valve were derived from the product of the mean velocity and the valve orifice dimensions. The output of the right ventricle was usually, but not always, greater than that of the left ventricle. Combined ventricular output increased from approximately 50 ml/min at 18 weeks to 1200 ml/min at term. Despite limitations in the accuracy of the technique these results form a useful basis for the analysis of blood flow in the normal fetus and for the interpretation of abnormal Doppler findings in prenatal life.

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