Retrospective echocardiographic review identified 58 consecutive infants and children with fixed subaortic stenosis. Mean (SD) age at diagnosis was 4.8 (3.6) years (range two days to 14.7 years), and diagnosis occurred in infancy in eight. Associated cardiac abnormalities were present in 41 (71%) whereas fixed subaortic stenosis was an isolated lesion in 17 (29%). Four types of fixed subaortic stenosis were identified: short segment (47 (81%)), long segment (7 (12%)), posterior displacement of the infundibular septum with additional discrete narrowing of the left ventricular outflow tract (3 (5%)), and redundant tissue arising from the membranous septum (1 (2%)). Echocardiographic studies had been performed before the diagnosis of fixed subaortic stenosis in nine patients, all with associated abnormalities. These were performed in infancy in each and showed a "normal" left ventricular outflow tract in six and posterior deviation of the infundibular septum in three. In 16 patients serial echocardiographic studies had been performed after the diagnosis of fixed subaortic stenosis but before surgery of the left ventricular outflow tract. Rapid evolution of short segment to long segment narrowing was seen in one patient, and tethering of the aortic valve or mitral valve developed in a further four patients. Aortic valve or mitral valve involvement was not seen before the age of three years but was common thereafter (10/40 patients, 25%). Fixed subaortic stenosis may be an "acquired" lesion with the potential for changes in form as well as progression in severity of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.