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Cardiac valve calcification: characteristics of patients with calcification of the mitral annulus or aortic valve

Abstract

Aims To determine whether mitral annular calcification and aortic valve calcification, with or without stenosis, are expressions of atherosclerotic disease.

Methods The incidence of atherosclerotic risk factors was analysed in patients with mitral annular calcification and aortic valve calcification and in control patients from a prospective echocardiographic database of 8160 consecutive patients; 657 patients (8%) were identified with mitral annular calcification and 815 (9%) with a calcified aortic valve, of whom 515 (6.3%) had stenosis with a minimal aortic valve gradient of 16 mm Hg. In these patients, cardiac and vascular risk factors were compared with 568 control patients using multiple logistic regression analysis.

Results Age (odds ratio (OR) varying from 5.78 to 104, depending on age class), female sex (OR 1.75), hypertension (OR 2.38), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.85), and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 2.95) were strongly and significantly associated with aortic valve calcification without stenosis, as were age (OR varying from 8.82 to 67, depending on age class), female sex (OR 2.22), hypertension (OR 2.72), diabetes mellitus (OR 2.49), and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 2.86) with mitral annular calcification. Age (OR varying from 1.11 to 7.7), hypertension (OR 1.91), and hypercholesterolaemia (OR 2.55) were strongly and significantly associated with stenotic aortic valve calcification.

Conclusions Mitral annular calcification and stenotic or non-stenotic aortic valve calcification have a high incidence of atherosclerotic risk factors, suggesting they should be considered as manifestations of generalised atherosclerosis.

  • mitral annular calcification
  • aortic valve calcification
  • calcified aortic stenosis
  • risk factors
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