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Value of improved treadmill exercise capacity
  1. J D SOMAUROO, Specialist Registrar in Cardiology,
  1. D T CONNELLY, Senior Lecturer in Cardiology
  1. The Cardiothoracic Centre—Liverpool NHS Trust
  2. Thomas Drive, Liverpool L14 3PE, UK

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Editor,—Staniforth et al’s paper comparing exercise capacity in VVIR and VVI pacing modes in 12 patients with complete AV block showed that rate responsive pacing improved some but not all measures of exercise capacity.1 They conclude that the best investigation for assessing exercise capacity remains unclear.

On the contrary, we feel that what is at fault is the pacing mode rather than the investigation. It is widely accepted that the preservation of AV synchrony is optimal for patients with sinus rhythm and complete AV block and is indeed recommended by the British Pacing and Electrophysiology Group.2 Maintaining AV synchrony with a physiological AV interval increases cardiac output both at rest and on exercise with normal and impaired left ventricular function.3 Therefore, the use of VVIR and VVI pacing is inappropriate for six of the 12 patients in their study who were in sinus rhythm with complete AV block.

DDD (or DDDR) pacing would have been more appropriate in these patients; therefore, this study compares two suboptimal pacing modes. Dual chamber pacing would almost certainly have resulted in better exercise capacity. The loss of AV synchrony with VVI or VVIR modes probably also accounts for the heterogeneity of the results assessing exercise capacity in this small group of patients. If dual chamber pacing had also been compared the results may well have shown an improvement in exercise capacity across the board.4 The results of the UK-PACE trial comparing VVI, VVIR, and DDD modes in higher degrees of AV block are awaited,5 but as with previous studies are expected to show that preservation of AV synchrony is the preferred mode on symptomatic, among other, grounds.


This letter was shown to the authors, who reply as follows:

DDD is the best rate response system for subjects with normal sinus node function; compared with VVIR it offers improved quality of life and less pacemaker syndrome. The evidence that the haemodynamic improvement of DDD over VVIR automatically translates into an increase in treadmill exercise capacity is not so well established,1-1-1-3 and as such we do not accept the explanation of Somauroo and Connelly.

The purpose of our study was not to compare the benefits of various pacing modes, rather it was to use rate responsive pacing (in this case VVIR) as an instrument to compare the validity of various measurements of exercise capacity. It was methodologically unfortunate that some of our subjects were VVIR rather than DDD paced, but this was a reflection of the then accepted practice at the time when they had their original units implanted. The interesting observation we did make was that a treatment that is known to improve both symptoms and treadmill exercise capacity did not lead to an improvement in customary daily activity. This leaves us with the problem of divining the likely clinical benefit from the results of any study measuring treadmill exercise capacity. Just because someone can exercise harder in the laboratory does not mean that they will do so at home—but a quality of life questionnaire will show you if they do so with greater ease.


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