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Outcome from balloon induced coronary artery dissection after intracoronary β radiation
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  1. I P Kaya,
  2. M Sabatea,
  3. G Van Langenhovea,
  4. M A Costaa,
  5. A J Wardeha,
  6. A L Gijzela,
  7. N V Deshpandea,
  8. S G Carliera,
  9. V L M A Coenb,
  10. P C Levendagb,
  11. W Van der Giessena,
  12. P J de Feytera,
  13. P W Serruysa
  1. aThoraxcenter Bd 418, University Hospital Dijkzigt, Dr Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands, bThe Daniel den Hoed, Cancer Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Professor Serruys email: serruys{at}card.azr.nl

Abstract

OBJECTIVE To evaluate the healing of balloon induced coronary artery dissection in individuals who have received β radiation treatment and to propose a new intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) dissection score to facilitate the comparison of dissection through time.

DESIGN Retrospective study.

SETTING Tertiary referral centre.

PATIENTS 31 patients with stable angina pectoris, enrolled in the beta energy restenosis trial (BERT-1.5), were included. After excluding those who underwent stent implantation, the evaluable population was 22 patients.

INTERVENTIONS Balloon angioplasty and intracoronary radiation followed by quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and IVUS. Repeat QCA and IVUS were performed at six month follow up.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES QCA and IVUS evidence of healing of dissection. Dissection classification for angiography was by the National Heart Lung Blood Institute scale. IVUS proven dissection was defined as partial or complete. The following IVUS defined characteristics of dissection were described in the affected coronary segments: length, depth, arc circumference, presence of flap, and dissection score. Dissection was defined as healed when all features of dissection had resolved. The calculated dose of radiation received by the dissected area in those with healed versus non-healed dissection was also compared.

RESULTS Angiography (type A = 5, B = 7, C = 4) and IVUS proven (partial = 12, complete = 4) dissections were seen in 16 patients following intervention. At six month follow up, six and eight unhealed dissections were seen by angiography (A = 2, B = 4) and IVUS (partial = 7, complete = 1), respectively. The mean IVUS dissection score was 5.2 (range 3–8) following the procedure, and 4.6 (range 3–7) at follow up. No correlation was found between the dose prescribed in the treated area and the presence of unhealed dissection. No change in anginal status was seen despite the presence of unhealed dissection.

CONCLUSION β radiation appears to alter the normal healing process, resulting in unhealed dissection in certain individuals. In view of the delayed and abnormal healing observed, long term follow up is indicated given the possible late adverse effects of radiation. Although in this cohort no increase in cardiac events following coronary dissections was seen, larger populations are needed to confirm this phenomenon. Stenting of all coronary dissections may be warranted in patients scheduled for brachytherapy after balloon angioplasty.

  • dissection
  • intravascular ultrasound
  • angiography
  • coronary artery
  • brachytherapy
  • angioplasty
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