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Late arrhythmia in adults with the Mustard procedure for transposition of great arteries: a surrogate marker for right ventricular dysfunction?
  1. M A Gatzoulisa,
  2. J Waltersa,
  3. P R McLaughlina,
  4. N Merchantb,
  5. G D Webba,
  6. P Liua
  1. aUniversity of Toronto, Congenital Cardiac Centre For Adults, The Toronto Hospital Department of Medicine, Ontario, Canada, bMedical Imaging, University of Toronto
  1. Dr M A Gatzoulis, Grown-Up Congenital Heart Unit, Royal Brompton Hospital, Sydney Street, London SW3 6NP, UK email: m.gatzoulis{at}


OBJECTIVE To examine the relation between ventricular dysfunction and late clinical arrhythmia in adults who underwent the Mustard procedure for transposition of the great arteries.

DESIGN Observational study based on periodic outpatient assessment of biventricular function.

SETTING Tertiary referral centre.

INTERVENTIONS Analysis of data from 12 lead ECGs, echocardiography, exercise radionuclide ventriculography, and magnetic resonance imaging.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Clinical outcome and late onset clinical arrhythmia during follow up. ECG and ventricular function indices obtained before arrhythmia onset were used for analysis.

RESULTS 51 patients (mean (SD) age 25.7 (5.0) years) fulfilled entry criteria at a mean of 23.4 (4.0) years after the Mustard procedure. Late arrhythmia occurred in 11 (22%): sustained atrial flutter/fibrillation in 10, ventricular tachycardia in one. Compared with patients who remained arrhythmia free, patients with arrhythmia had longer QRS (129 (26)v 112 (16) ms, p = 0.01), greater QT dispersion (107 (28) v 51 (24) ms, p < 0.001), and increased ratio of right to left ventricular end diastolic diameter (2.4 (0.9) v 1.7 (0.7), p = 0.02), but no difference in wall thickness. Systemic ejection fraction was also reduced in the arrhythmia subgroup (at rest: 34.1 (13)% v 47 (16)%, p = 0.04; during exercise: 37.8 (12)% v 52 (17)%, p = 0.03). QRS duration correlated with right ventricular end diastolic diameter (r = 0.59, p < 0.001), suggesting a possible mechano-electric relation after the Mustard procedure. QT dispersion was the only predictor of clinical arrhythmia in multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS Impaired ventricular function in adults with the Mustard procedure for transposition of the great arteries relates to clinical arrhythmia. Late atrial flutter/fibrillation may be a surrogate marker for ventricular dysfunction, and these patients may also be at risk of ventricular tachycardia.

  • congenital heart disease
  • transposition of great vessels
  • arrhythmia
  • radionuclide ventriculography

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