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Endogenous, local, vascular endothelial growth factor production in patients with chronic total coronary artery occlusions: further evidence for its role in angiogenesis
  1. H El-Gendi1,
  2. A G Violaris1,
  3. R Foale1,
  4. H S Sharma2,
  5. D J Sheridan1
  1. 1Division of National Heart and Lung Institute, St Mary's Hospital, Academic Cardiology Unit, London, UK
  2. 2Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr AG Violaris, Academic Cardiology Unit, 10th Floor QEQM Wing, St Mary's Hospital, Paddington W2 1NY, UK;

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Growth factors are currently emerging as a new therapeutic tool in coronary heart disease.1 Endogenous expression patterns of a number of angiogenic growth factors have been described in the chronically ischaemic and collateralised hearts.2 Through their proven experimental angiogenic effect, the administration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)3 and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)1 have been explored as a means of increasing the degree of collateralisation in patients with end stage coronary heart disease. Questions remain however on the optimal dose, duration of administration, and monitoring of these agents1–3 as well as on the magnitude of risk posed by angiogenic cytokine treatment for accelerating atherosclerosis,4,5 partly because of the paucity of data on local growth factor concentrations and changes in living man. Patients with total coronary …

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