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Multiple ischaemic events set the pattern in patent foramen ovale

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In cryptogenic stroke and patent foramen ovale (PFO) multiple ischaemic strokes or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) before diagnosis predispose to recurrent strokes later, Nedeltchev et al have found. Whether PFO causes cryptogenic stroke—through embolism of a venous clot across the atrial right to left shunt—is debatable, …

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