Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Infective endocarditis: determinants of long term outcome
  1. R O M Netzer1,
  2. S C Altwegg1,
  3. E Zollinger1,
  4. M Täuber2,
  5. T Carrel1,
  6. C Seiler1
  1. 1Swiss Cardiovascular Centre Bern, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland
  2. 2Institute for Infectious Diseases, University Hospital, Bern, Switzerland
  1. Correspondence to:
    Professor Christian Seiler, Swiss Cardiovascular Centre Bern, University Hospital, Inselspital, Freiburgstrasse, CH-3010 Bern, Switzerland;


Objective: To evaluate predictors of long term prognosis in infective endocarditis.

Design: Retrospective cohort study.

Setting: Tertiary care centre.

Patients: 212 consecutive patients with infective endocarditis between 1980 and 1995

Main outcome measures: Overall and cardiac mortality; event-free survival; and the following events: recurrence, need for late valve surgery, bleeding and embolic complications, cerebral dysfunction, congestive heart failure.

Results: During a mean follow up period of 89 months (range 1–244 months), 56% of patients died. In 180 hospital survivors, overall and cardiac mortality amounted to 45% and 24%, respectively. By multivariate analysis, early surgical treatment, infection by streptococci, age < 55 years, absence of congestive heart failure, and > 6 symptoms or signs of endocarditis during active infection were predictive of improved overall long term survival. Independent determinants of event-free survival were infection by streptococci and age < 55 years. Event-free survival was 17% at the end of follow up both in medically–surgically treated patients and in medically treated patients.

Conclusions: Long term survival following infective endocarditis is 50% after 10 years and is predicted by early surgical treatment, age < 55 years, lack of congestive heart failure, and the initial presence of more symptoms of endocarditis.

  • infective endocarditis
  • late cardiac surgery
  • long term follow up
  • outcome

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.