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Therapeutic inhibition of tumour necrosis factor α in patients with heart failure: cooling an inflamed heart
  1. P A Henriksen,
  2. D E Newby
  1. Department of Cardiology, University of Edinburgh, Royal Infirmary, Lauriston Place, Edinburgh, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr Peter Henriksen, Department of Cardiology, Royal Infirmary, Lauriston Place, Edinburgh EH3 9YW, UK;


Heart failure is a systemic disorder characterised by tissue hypoxia and secondary organ dysfunction which occurs in response to various myocardial insults that include ischaemia, viral infections, and toxins. In addition to maladaptive neurohumoral activation, heart failure is associated with an inflammatory state that appears to have a detrimental effect on cardiac function and prognosis. This has led to the suggestion that anti-inflammatory interventions may have therapeutic potential in the symptomatic and prognostic treatment of patients with heart failure. This review considers the role of inhibition of the cytokine tumour necrosis factor α in the treatment of heart failure.

  • tumour necrosis factor α
  • heart failure
  • ATTACH, anti-TNF alpha therapy against chronic heart failure
  • IL-1β, interleukin 1β
  • iNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase
  • NF-κB, nuclear factor κB
  • RENAISSANCE, ramdomized etanercept North American strategy to study antagonism of cytokines
  • RECOVER, research into etanercept antagonism in ventricular dysfunction
  • TNFα, tumour necrosis factor α
  • TNFR, tumour necrosis factor α receptor

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