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Autonomic changes in patients with heart failure and in post-myocardial infarction patients
  1. M P Frenneaux
  1. Correspondence to:
    Professor Michael P Frenneaux
    Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, The Medical School, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK;


A range of techniques for the assessment of autonomic tone are described. Impaired baroreflex control of heart period, measured in terms of heart rate variability or baroreflex sensitivity, is independently associated with adverse prognosis in patients with heart failure and following acute myocardial infarction. These techniques have not yet entered routine clinical practice.

  • ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme
  • AICD, automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
  • ATRAMI, autonomic tone and reflexes after myocardial infarction
  • ASDNN, average of the standard deviation of NN intervals
  • BRS, baroreflex sensitivity
  • CI, confidence interval
  • HRV, heart rate variability
  • HF, high frequency
  • LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction
  • LF, low frequency
  • MI, myocardial infarction
  • RR, relative risk
  • rMSSD, root mean square successive difference
  • SDANN, standard deviation of average NN intervals
  • SDNN, standard deviation of NN intervals
  • TINN, triangular interpolation of NN intervals
  • TO, turbulence onset
  • TS, turbulence slope
  • ULF, ultra low frequency
  • VF, ventricular fibrillation
  • VLF, very low frequency
  • VPC, ventricular premature contraction
  • autonomic changes
  • heart failure
  • myocardial infarction

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