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Long term clinical and echocardiographic results of mitral balloon valvotomy in children and adolescents
  1. M E Fawzy1,
  2. M A Stefadouros1,
  3. H Hegazy1,
  4. F E Shaer1,
  5. M A Chaudhary2,
  6. F A Fadley1
  1. 1Department of Cardiovascular Diseases and the Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  2. 2Department of Cardiovascular Diseases and the Department of Scientific Computing, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr Mohamed Eid Fawzy
    Department of Cardiovascular Diseases (MBC-16), King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center, PO Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia;


Aims: To assess the safety, efficacy, and long term results of mitral balloon valvotomy (MBV) for rheumatic mitral stenosis in children and adolescents in comparison to adults.

Methods: The results of 468 patients with mitral stenosis who underwent successful MBV and were followed up for 0.5–13 years were analysed. Patients were divided according to age at the time of MBV into group 1 consisting of 84 patients ⩽ 20 years of age (children and adolescents) and group 2 that included 384 patients, age > 20 (adults).

Results: Patients in group 1 had a lower mitral echo score (mean (SD) 7.5 (1.3) v 8 (1.1), p < 0.001), smaller Doppler mitral valve area (MVA) (0.84 (0.17) v 0.92 (0.18) cm2, p < 0.001), and higher Doppler mitral valve gradient (15.0 (5.3) v 12.7 (4.5) mm Hg, p < 0.001) than group 2. Immediately after MBV group 1 had larger MVA, whether measured by Doppler (2.0 (0.30) v 1.96 (0.28) cm2, p < 0.05) or by catheter (2.0 (0.59) v 1.8 (0.52) cm2, p < 0.001), and similar complication rates, compared to group 2. After a mean follow up of 5 (3.5) years there was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 in the incidence of restenosis (14.3% v 16.1%, NS). Event-free survival rates at 5, 10, and 12.5 years were 93%, 79%, and 79% for group 1 and 94%, 90%, and 84% for group 2 (p  =  0.18).

Conclusions: MBV is safe and effective in children and adolescents with rheumatic mitral stenosis. It provides better immediate results than in adults and excellent long term results that are comparable to those seen in adults.

  • MBV, mitral balloon valvotomy
  • MES, mitral echocardiographic score
  • MVA, mitral valve area
  • NYHA, New York Heart Assocation
  • mitral valve
  • mitral stenosis
  • mitral balloon valvotomy

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