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Optimisation of cardiac resynchronisation therapy: addressing the problem of “non-responders”


Cardiac resynchronisation therapy has become firmly established as a treatment for patients with symptomatic heart failure. Several randomised controlled trials and numerous observational studies have demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life. Despite these advances it is clear that approximately 25% of patients who meet current criteria for implantation of such a device do not show objective evidence of clinical benefit. Implantation of a CRT device is expensive, time consuming and involves some risk so it is important to accurately identify patients who are likely to respond and to optimise pacing lead placement and device programming to maximise the benefit in these selected patients.

  • AV, atrioventricular
  • CRT, cardiac resynchronisation therapy
  • LBBB, left bundle branch block
  • LV, left ventricular
  • NYHA, New York Heart Association
  • RBBB, right bundle branch block
  • TDI, tissue Doppler imaging
  • Vo2max, maximal oxygen uptake
  • heart failure
  • left bundle branch block
  • pacing

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