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PAI-1 and homocysteine, but not lipoprotein (a) and thrombophilic polymorphisms, are independently associated with the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events after successful coronary stenting
  1. R Marcucci,
  2. D Brogi,
  3. F Sofi,
  4. C Giglioli,
  5. S Valente,
  6. A Alessandrello Liotta,
  7. M Lenti,
  8. A M Gori,
  9. D Prisco,
  10. R Abbate,
  11. G F Gensini
  1. Dipartimento del cuore e dei vasi, Thrombosis Centre, Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria Careggi, Florence, Italy; Center for the Study at Moleculor and Clinical Level of Chronic, Degenerative and Neoplastic Diseases to develop Novel Therapies
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr Rossella Marcucci
    Dipartimento del cuore e dei vasi, Centro Trombosi, Viale Morgagni 85, 50134 Florence, Italy; r.marcucci{at}


Objective: To evaluate the role of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A polymorphism, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G polymorphism, PAI-1, homocysteine, and lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) in the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients with acute coronary syndromes who underwent coronary stenting.

Design: 520 patients (375 men and 145 women) with acute coronary syndromes and 520 age and sex matched controls were enrolled. MACE were recorded for 109 patients. Heterozygosity for factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A polymorphism, and 4G/5G polymorphism did not significantly differ between patients with and without MACE. A significantly higher percentage of patients with increased homocysteine (28% v 19%, p < 0.001) and PAI-1 concentrations (25% v 16%, p < 0.001) had MACE with respect to those who did not. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the overall risk of MACE was significantly higher among patients with increased PAI-1 (p  =  0.006) and homocysteine concentrations (p  =  0.04). Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex, traditional cardiovascular risk factors, renal function, systolic left ventricular function, the number of stenosed vessels, and history of percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting showed that homocysteine (odds ratio 7.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 57.7, p < 0.05) and PAI-1 concentrations (odds ratio 5.3, 95% CI 1.2 to 23.8, p < 0.05) within the fifth quintile (with respect to the first) were significant and independent risk factors for the future occurrence of MACE.

Conclusions: Increased PAI-1 and homocysteine concentrations are independent risk factors for MACE after successful coronary stenting, whereas Lp(a) and thrombophilic polymorphisms are not predictive.

  • ACS, acute coronary syndromes
  • CABG, coronary artery bypass grafting
  • CAD, coronary artery disease
  • CI, confidence interval
  • ELISA, enzyme linked immunoassay
  • Lp(a), lipoprotein (a)
  • MACE, major adverse cardiac events
  • MI, myocardial infarction
  • OR, odds ratio
  • PAI-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1
  • PCI, percutaneous coronary intervention
  • q1–5, first to fifth quintile
  • coronary stenting
  • MACE
  • genetic polymorphisms
  • homocysteine
  • PAI-1

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  • Published Online First 1 July 2005