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Why does the heart rate response to exercise predict adverse cardiac events?
  1. H C Routledge,
  2. J N Townend
  1. Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham, UK
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr Jonathan N Townend
    Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK; john.townend{at}


The physiological mechanisms responsible for determining heart rate during exercise are complex, and further research into “chronotropic incompetence” is clearly required

  • BRS, baroreflex sensitivity
  • HRV, heart rate variability
  • NT-proBNP, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide
  • endothelial function
  • heart rate
  • inflammation
  • exercise testing

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  • Published Online First 30 December 2005

  • No competing interests