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Exercise and heart failure: assessment and treatment

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  • *e/V˙co2  =  863/Paco2 × (1−Vd/Vt), where 863 is a constant to standardise volume measurements, Paco2 is the arterial tension of carbon dioxide and Vd/Vt is dead space as a fraction of tidal volume.

  • In compliance with EBAC/EACCME guidelines, all authors participating in Education in Heart have disclosed potential conflicts of interest that might cause a bias in the article