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Maternal diabetes and the fetal heart
  1. L K Hornberger
  1. Correspondence to:
    Dr Lisa K Hornberger
    Pediatric Heart & Fetal Treatment Centers, University of California, San Francisco, 505 Parnassus Avenue M306, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA; lisa.hornberger{at}


Maternal diabetes mellitus significantly affects the fetal heart and fetal–placental circulation in both structure and function. The influence of pre-conceptional diabetes begins during embryonic development in the first trimester, with altered cardiac morphogenesis and placental development. It continues to have an influence on the fetal circulation through the second and third trimesters and into the perinatal and neonatal period

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