Echocardiography has several roles in patients with cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). First, it can optimise selection of CRT candidates by demonstration of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. Second, it can be used to assess immediate response to CRT, including detection of acute LV resynchronisation. Echocardiography is also useful to evaluate long-term benefit from CRT. Finally, echocardiography is important in optimisation of pacemaker settings, including AV and VV optimisation.
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Funding: Dr GB Bleeker is supported by the Dutch Heart Foundation, grant no. 2002B109.
Competing interests: None declared.
- cardiac resynchronisation therapy
- left ventricular
- New York Heart Association
- real-time three-dimensional echocardiography
- septal to posterior wall motion delay
- strain (rate) imaging
- tissue Doppler imaging
- tissue synchronisation imaging
- velocity time integral