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Optimal use of echocardiography in cardiac resynchronisation therapy
  1. Gabe B Bleeker1,
  2. Cheuk-Man Yu2,
  3. Petros Nihoyannopoulos3,
  4. Johan de Sutter4,
  5. Nico Van de Veire4,
  6. Eduard R Holman1,
  7. Martin J Schalij1,
  8. Ernst E van der Wall1,
  9. Jeroen J Bax1
  1. 1
    Department of Cardiology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands
  2. 2
    Division of Cardiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, NT, Hong Kong
  3. 3
    Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK
  4. 4
    Department of Cardiology, University Hospital, Ghent, Belgium
  1. Dr Gabe B Bleeker, Leiden University Medical Centre, Albinusdreef 2, Leiden, 2333 ZA The Netherlands; g.b.bleeker{at}


Echocardiography has several roles in patients with cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT). First, it can optimise selection of CRT candidates by demonstration of left ventricular (LV) dyssynchrony. Second, it can be used to assess immediate response to CRT, including detection of acute LV resynchronisation. Echocardiography is also useful to evaluate long-term benefit from CRT. Finally, echocardiography is important in optimisation of pacemaker settings, including AV and VV optimisation.

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  • Funding: Dr GB Bleeker is supported by the Dutch Heart Foundation, grant no. 2002B109.

  • Competing interests: None declared.

  • Abbreviations:
    cardiac resynchronisation therapy
    left ventricular
    New York Heart Association
    real-time three-dimensional echocardiography
    septal to posterior wall motion delay
    strain (rate) imaging
    tissue Doppler imaging
    tissue synchronisation imaging
    velocity time integral