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Acute coronary syndromes
Gender differences in management and outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes: results on 20 290 patients from the AMIS Plus Registry
  1. Dragana Radovanovic1,
  2. Paul Erne2,
  3. Philip Urban3,
  4. Osmund Bertel4,
  5. Hans Rickli5,
  6. Jean-Michel Gaspoz6
  1. 1
    AMIS Plus Data Centre, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland
  2. 2
    Division of Cardiology, Kantonsspital, Lucerne, Switzerland
  3. 3
    Division of Cardiology, Hôpital de La Tour, Geneva, Switzerland
  4. 4
    Division of Cardiology, Stadtspital Triemli, Zurich, Switzerland
  5. 5
    Division of Cardiology, Kantonsspital, St Gallen, Switzerland
  6. 6
    Department of Community Medicine and Primary care, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland
  1. Professor J-M Gaspoz, Service de Médecine de premier recours, Département de Médecine communautaire et de premier recours, Hôpitaux Universitaires, 24, rue Micheli-du-Crest, 1211 Genève 14, Switzerland; jean-michel.gaspoz{at}


Background: Gender differences in management and outcomes have been reported in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).

Objectives: To assess such gender differences in a Swiss national registry.

Methods: 20 290 patients with ACS enrolled in the AMIS Plus Registry from January 1997 to March 2006 by 68 hospitals were included in a prospective observational study. Data on patients’ characteristics, diagnoses, procedures, complications and outcomes were recorded. Odds ratios (ORs) of in-hospital mortality were calculated using logistic regression models.

Results: 5633 (28%) patients were female and 14 657 (72%) male. Female patients were older than men (mean (SD) age 70.9 (12.1) vs 63.4 (12.9) years; p<0.001), had more comorbidities and came to hospital later. They underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) less frequently (OR = 0.65; 95% CI 0.61 to 0.69) and their unadjusted in-hospital mortality was higher overall (10.7% vs 6.3%; p<0.001) and in those who underwent PCI (3.0% vs 4.2%; p = 0.018). Mortality differences between women and men disappeared after adjustments for other predictors (adjusted OR (aOR) for women vs men: 1.09; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.25), except in women aged 51–60 years (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.04 to 3.04). However, even after adjustments, female gender remained significantly associated with a lower probability of undergoing PCI (OR = 0.70; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.76).

Conclusions: The analysis showed gender differences in baseline characteristics and in the rate of PCI in patients admitted for ACS in Swiss hospitals between 1997 and 2006. Reasons for the significant underuse of PCI in women, and a slightly higher in-hospital mortality in the 51–60 year age group, need to be investigated further.

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  • Funding: The AMIS Plus Registry is funded by grants from (in alphabetical order): AstraZeneca, Switzerland; Bayer, Switzerland; Biotronik, Switzerland; Boehringer Ingelheim, Switzerland; Boston Scientific, Switzerland; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Switzerland; Essex Chemie, Switzerland; GlaxoSmithKline, Switzerland; Guidant, Switzerland; Invatec, Switzerland; Johnson&Johnson/Cordis, Switzerland; Jomed, Switzerland; MCMmedsys, Switzerland; Medtronic, Switzerland; Mepha, Switzerland; A. Menarini, Switzerland; Merck, Switzerland; MSD, Switzerland; Pfizer, Switzerland; Rahn, Switzerland; Roche Pharma, Switzerland; Sanofi-Aventis, Switzerland; Schering, Switzerland; Servier, Switzerland; St. Jude Medical, Switzerland; SPSS, Switzerland; Swiss Heart Foundation, Takeda Pharma, Switzerland and Vision Foundation, Switzerland.

  • Conflict of interest: None.

  • Abbreviations:
    acute coronary syndrome
    acute myocardial infarction
    left bundle branch block
    non-ST-segment elevation
    odds ratio
    percutaneous coronary intervention
    ST-segment elevation

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