Objective: To assess the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and its effect on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with established coronary disease and to explore the inter-relationships between metabolic syndrome, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular risk.
Methods: The presence of metabolic syndrome was determined in 8397 patients with stable coronary disease from the European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease, with mean follow-up of 4.2 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined using a modified version of the National Cholesterol Education Programme criteria.
Results: Metabolic syndrome was present in 1964/8397 (23.4%) of the population and significantly predicted outcome; relative risk (RR) of cardiovascular mortality = 1.82 (95% CI 1.40 to 2.39); and fatal and non-fatal myocardial infarction RR = 1.50 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.80). The association with adverse outcomes remained significant after adjustment, RR of cardiovascular mortality after adjustment for conventional risks and diabetes = 1.39 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.86). In comparison with normal weight subjects without diabetes or metabolic syndrome, normal weight dysmetabolic subjects (with either diabetes or metabolic syndrome) were at substantially increased risk of cardiovascular death (RR = 4.05 (95% CI 2.38 to 6.89)). The relative risks of cardiovascular death for overweight and obese patients with dysmetabolic status were nominally lower (RR = 3.01 (95% CI 1.94 to 4.69) and RR = 2.35 (95% CI 1.50 to 3.68), respectively).
Conclusions: Metabolic syndrome is associated with adverse cardiovascular outcome, independently of its associations with diabetes and obesity. A metabolic profile should form part of the risk assessment in all patients with coronary disease, not just those who are obese.
- metabolic syndrome
- stable coronary disease
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Competing interests: Servier was the sponsor of the EUROPA study. KMF, WR, RF, MB and MS have received speaking fees, honoraria and research funds from Servier. PH has also received consulting fees from Servier. CAD has no competing interest to declare.
- body mass index
- European Trial on Reduction of Cardiac Events with Perindopril in Stable Coronary Artery Disease
- high-density lipoprotein
- myocardial infarction
- National Cholesterol Education Program
- relative risk