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Biological pacemaking: a concept whose time has come…or is coming
  1. Michael R Rosen
  1. Correspondence to:
    Michael R Rosen
    MD, Center for Molecular Therapeutics, Departments of Pharmacology and Pediatrics, Columbia University, 630 West 168 Street, PH 7West-321, New York, NY 10032, USA; mrr1{at}


“…when biological pacemakers reach clinical testing it is likely that some form of tandem therapy [with electronic pacemakers] will be used…”

  • biological pacemaking
  • electronic pacing
  • gene therapy

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  • The author discloses the following research grant support: NHLBI and Boston Scientific

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