The classic definition of cardiac syndrome X (CSX) seems inadequate both for clinical and research purposes and should be replaced with one aimed at including a sufficiently homogeneous group of patients with the common plausible pathophysiological mechanism of coronary microvascular dysfunction. More specifically, CSX should be defined as a form of stable effort angina, which, according to careful diagnostic investigation, can reasonably be attributed to abnormalities in the coronary microvascular circulation.
- CAD, coronary artery disease
- CBF, coronary blood flow
- CSX, cardiac syndrome X
- LV, left ventricular
- MIBG, metaiodobenzylguanidine
- MR, magnetic resonance
- PET, positron emission tomography
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