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Persistent left superior vena cava: diagnosis with saline contrast echocardiography
  1. S Petronzelli1,
  2. N Patruno1,
  3. D Pontillo2
  1. 1
    San Giuseppe Hospital, Albano Laziale (RM), Italy
  2. 2
    Belcolle Hospital, Viterbo, Italy
  1. S Petronzelli, San Giuseppe Hospital, Albano Laziale (RM), Italy; spetronzelli{at}

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The prevalence of persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) has been estimated to be 0.5% in the absence of other congenital cardiac disease and 3–10% when associated with other cardiac defects. PLSVC does not affect the normal circulation because the systemic venous return enters the right heart chambers, usually through a dilated …

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