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Non-invasive imaging
Intraoperative echocardiography
  1. Donald C Oxorn
  1. Professor Donald Oxorn, University of Washington, 1959 NE Pacific Street, Box 356540, Seattle, WA 98195-6540, USA; oxorn{at}

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Over the past several decades, cardiac surgical practice has changed considerably. As the prominence of simple coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has waned, the complexity of cardiac surgical procedures has significantly increased. Patients are returning to the operating room (OR) to have revisions of their original procedures, such as those with dysfunctional prosthetic valves, occluded coronary grafts, and adults with congenital heart disease. Many valves in which prosthetic replacement was previously performed are now being repaired. In addition, the majority of patients present with a variety of comorbidities such as abnormalities of left and right ventricular function, diabetes, renal insufficiency, pulmonary hypertension, and cerebrovascular disease. Surgeons and anaesthetists are therefore requiring more sophisticated, real time assessments of procedural success.

The use of intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) began in the 1980s, with M mode and subsequently two dimensional TOE, and in this initial period was used almost exclusively for the monitoring of left ventricular systolic function before and after CABG. Since that time, TOE has become an integral part of the intraoperative management of patients presenting for a variety of cardiac surgical procedures, while maintaining its pre-eminence as a monitor of ventricular function. In 2003, a committee under the auspices of the American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE), and the American Heart Association (AHA) presented guidelines for the use of echocardiography,1 including the use of intraoperative TOE (box 1), building on guidelines published by the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), and the Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists (SCA).2

Box 1 Evidence based guidelines for intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography1

Class I: Conditions for which there is evidence and/or general agreement that a given procedure or treatment is useful and effective
  1. Evaluation of acute, persistent, and life threatening haemodynamic disturbances in which ventricular function and its determinants are uncertain and have not responded to treatment

  2. Surgical repair of valvular lesions, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, and aortic dissection with possible aortic valve involvement

  3. Evaluation of complex valve replacements requiring homografts …

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  • Competing interests: In compliance with EBAC/EACCME guidelines, all authors participating in Education in Heart have disclosed potential conflicts of interest that might cause a bias in the article. The author has no competing interests.

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