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Cardiac imaging and non-invasive testing
Evaluation of left atrial longitudinal function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a tissue Doppler imaging and two-dimensional strain study
  1. I A Paraskevaidis,
  2. F Panou,
  3. C Papadopoulos,
  4. D Farmakis,
  5. J Parissis,
  6. I Ikonomidis,
  7. A Rigopoulos,
  8. E K Iliodromitis,
  9. D Th Kremastinos
  1. Second Department of Cardiology, Athens University Medical School, Attiko University Hospital, Athens, Greece
  1. Dr Ioannis A Paraskevaidis, Second Department of Cardiology, Athens University Medical School, Attiko University Hospital, 1 Rimini Street, Athens 12462, Greece; iparas{at}


Objective: We sought to quantify left atrial longitudinal function by tissue Doppler (TDI) and two-dimensional (2D) strain in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM).

Design: Case-control study.

Setting: Tertiary university hospital.

Patients: 43 consecutive patients with familial HCM, aged 49 (SD 18) years, along with 21 patients with non-HCM left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH, aged 52 (12) years) and 27 healthy volunteers (aged 42 (13) years).

Interventions: Subjects were studied by both TDI and 2D left atrial strain during all three atrial phases (reservoir, conduit, contractile), as well as by left ventricular systolic strain; total atrial deformation (TAD) was defined as the sum of maximum positive and maximum negative strain during a cardiac cycle.

Main outcome measures: Left atrial longitudinal function.

Results: Both TDI and 2D atrial strain and TAD were significantly reduced in HCM, compared to the other two groups in all atrial phases (p<0.001 in most cases); left ventricular systolic strain was also significantly reduced in HCM (p<0.001). Adding 2D contractile atrial strain to a model of conventional echo measurements (including left atrial diameter and volume index, interventricular septal thickness and E/A ratio and E/e′ ratios) increased its prognostic value in differentiating HCM from non-HCM LVH (p value of the change <0.001), while addition of TDI atrial strain or left ventricular strain did not. A cut-off for 2D contractile strain of −10.82% discriminated HCM from non-HCM LVH with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 81%. Intra-observer and inter-observer variabilities for atrial strain in HCM were 16% and 17.5% for TDI and 8% and 9.5% for 2D, respectively. Processing time per case in HCM was 12.5 (2.6) minutes for TDI versus 3.8 (1.2) minutes for 2D strain (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Left atrial longitudinal function is reduced in HCM compared to non-HCM LVH and healthy controls. In addition, 2D atrial strain has an additive value in differentiating HCM from non-HCM LVH and it is more reproducible and less time consuming than TDI strain.

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  • Competing interests: None.