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Speckle myocardial imaging modalities for early detection of myocardial impairment in isolated left ventricular non-compaction
  1. Diego Bellavia,
  2. Hector I Michelena,
  3. Matthew Martinez,
  4. Patricia A Pellikka,
  5. Charles J Bruce,
  6. Heidi M Connolly,
  7. Hector R Villarraga,
  8. Gabriella Veress,
  9. Jae K Oh,
  10. Fletcher A Miller
  1. Cardiovascular Division, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  1. Correspondence to Hector I Michelena, Cardiovascular Division, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, MN 55905, USA; Michelena.hector{at}


Objective To examine the hypothesis that speckle myocardial imaging (SMI) modalities, including longitudinal, radial and circumferential systolic (s) and diastolic (d) myocardial velocity imaging, displacement (D), strain rate (SR) and strain (S), as well as left ventricular (LV) rotation/torsion are sensitive for detecting early myocardial dysfunction in isolated LV non-compaction (iLVNC).

Design and results Twenty patients with iLVNC diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance (15) or echocardiography (5) were included. Patients were divided into two groups: ejection fraction (EF)>50% (n=10) and EF≤50% (n=10). Standard measures of systolic and diastolic function including pulsed wave tissue Doppler Imaging (PWTDI) were obtained. Longitudinal, radial and circumferential SMI, and LV rotation/torsion were compared with values for 20 age/sex-matched controls. EF, PWTDI E', E/E' and all of the SMI modalities were significantly abnormal for patients with EF≤50% compared with controls. In contrast, EF and PWTDI E', E/E' were not significantly different between controls and patients with iLVNC (EF>50%). However, SMI-derived longitudinal sS, sSR, sD and radial sS, as well as LV rotation/torsion values, were all reduced in iLVNC (EF>50%) compared with controls. Measurements with the highest discriminating power between iLVNC (EF>50%) and controls were longitudinal sS mean of the six apical segments (area under the curve (AUC)=0.94), sS global average (AUC=0.94), LV rotation apical mean (AUC=0.94); LV torsion (AUC=0.93) LV torsion rate (AUC=0.94).

Conclusions LV SMI values are reduced in patients with iLVNC, even those with normal EF and PWTDI. The most accurate SMI modalities to discriminate between patients and controls are longitudinal sS mean of the six apical segments, LV apical rotation or LV torsion rate.

  • Tissue Doppler
  • cardiomyopathy apical
  • cardiomyopathy dilated

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  • DB and HIM contributed equally to this study.

  • Funding This study was supported in part by a grant from the American Heart Association Heartland Affiliate (grant no 0620073Z) and by the research award of the American Society of Echocardiography (research award 2008–9, Diego Bellavia).

  • Competing interests None.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Institutional Review Board, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota, USA.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.