Objectives To evaluate the association of coffee consumption with the risk of heart failure (HF) in the Finnish population.
Design Prospective population-based cohort study.
Setting This study, which is a part of FINRISK study, was carried out in Finland.
Subjects Study cohorts included 59 490 Finnish participants aged 25–74 years who were free of HF at baseline.
Main outcome measures HF (2020 men and 1807 women) during a mean follow-up of 19.2 years.
Results Multivariable-adjusted (age, study year, body mass index, smoking, education, alcohol consumption, tea consumption, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, history of myocardial infarction, history of valvular heart disease, history of diabetes and total cholesterol) HRs (with 95% CI) of HF associated with the amount of coffee consumption daily (0, 1–2, 3–4, 5–6, 7–9 and ≥10 cups) were 1.00, 0.91 (0.71 to 1.16), 0.88 (0.70 to 1.10), 0.91 (0.73 to 1.13), 0.96 (0.76 to 1.22) and 1.02 (0.80 to 1.30) (ptrend=0.485) for men and 1.00, 0.73 (0.56 to 0.97), 0.77 (0.60 to 0.98), 0.68 (0.53 to 0.88), 0.80 (0.61 to 1.04) and 0.88 (0.65 to 1.19) (ptrend=0.007) for women, respectively. Stratification by age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and body mass index gave similar results.
Conclusion Coffee consumption does not increase the risk of HF in Finnish men and women. In women, an inverse association was observed between low to moderate coffee consumption and the risk of HF.
- heart failure
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Funding This work was supported by grants from the Finnish Academy (108297 and 118065) and Special Research Funds of the Social Welfare and Health Board, City of Oulu.
Competing interests None.
Ethics approval This study was conducted according to the ethical rules of the National Public Health Institute and the investigations were performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Participants provided informed consent (verbal from 1972 to 1992 and written in 1997 and 2002).
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.