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Visualisation of the aortic annulus using the real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography
  1. Ben Ren,
  2. Hong Tang,
  3. Yu Kang
  1. Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, Chengdu, China
  1. Correspondence to Professor Hong Tang, Department of Cardiology, West China Hospital, No. 37 GuoXue Alley, Chengdu 610041, China; hxyyth{at}

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Two most frequently used imaging modalities, contrast angiography and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D TTE), are known to have limitations in preoperative evaluation of the aortic annulus (AA) due to their 2D nature, since the anatomy of a normal tricuspid AA is a 3-pronged coronet.1 The real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D TEE) emerges as an attractive alternative imaging modality permitting the visualisation and measurement of the …

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  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Ethics Committe of West China Hospital.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.