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Two most frequently used imaging modalities, contrast angiography and two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography (2D TTE), are known to have limitations in preoperative evaluation of the aortic annulus (AA) due to their 2D nature, since the anatomy of a normal tricuspid AA is a 3-pronged coronet.1 The real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT 3D TEE) emerges as an attractive alternative imaging modality permitting the visualisation and measurement of the …
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Ethics Committe of West China Hospital.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; not externally peer reviewed.