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The early surgical treatment of aortic insufficiency can be briefly stated. In 1952, Charles Hufnagel of Chicago invented a ball valve prosthesis that was placed in the descending thoracic aorta to partially correct regurgitation, and in 1955, Gordon Murray of Toronto placed a homograft valve in the same position. Aortic valve replacement was inaugurated in 1960 by Albert Starr of Seattle with a mechanical valve and in 1962 by …
Competing interests None.
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