Objective To assess the prevalence of major geriatric syndromes (MGSs)―frailty, cognitive impairment, severe dependence and depression―and their influence on outcomes in unselected patients with acute cardiac diseases.
Design Observational prospective study with 12-month clinical and functional follow-up.
Setting Clinical cardiology unit of a university hospital in Madrid, Spain.
Patients Consecutive patients ≥75 years old urgently admitted to the cardiology unit.
Intervention Systematic comprehensive geriatric assessment.
Main outcome measures 12-month rates of mortality, readmission, functional decline and need for new social help.
Results Among the 211 patients studied, 127 (60.2%) presented at least one MGS on admission: 86 frailty (40.8%), 67 cognitive impairment (31.8%), 31 severe dependency (14.7%) and 9 depression (4.3%). Patients with MGSs were slightly older (82±5 vs 81±4 years, p=0.02) but did not show greater disease severity or comorbidity. The presence of MGSs was associated with a higher incidence of functional decline during hospitalisation (35.7% vs 8.6%, p=0.002) and higher 12-month age-, comorbidity- and diagnosis-adjusted risks of readmission (OR, 2.1.92; 95% CI 0.98 to 3.7), functional decline (OR, 2.86; 95% CI 1.41 to 5.79) and need for new social help (OR, 3.10; 95% CI 1.45 to 6.60). MGSs were also associated with a higher 12-month mortality rate, which was only obvious in patients hospitalised for heart failure but not for other reasons.
Conclusions A majority of older patients hospitalised for acute cardiac conditions in a cardiology department show at least one MGS on admission. MGSs are associated with poorer inhospital and postdischarge functional and clinical outcomes, particularly in patients with heart failure.
- Geriatric syndromes
- cardiovascular disease
- risk assessment
- functional impairment
- heart failure
- old age
- risk stratification
- coronary artery disease (CAD)
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Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval This study was conducted with the approval of the Ethics Committee of Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.