Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Therapeutic angiogenesis for cardiovascular disease: biological context, challenges, prospects
  1. Ian Zachary,
  2. Robert D Morgan
  1. Centre for Cardiovascular Biology and Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Science, Division of Medicine, University College London, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Ian Zachary, University College London, Rayne Institute, Department of Medicine, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ, UK; i.zachary{at}


Since the discovery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), therapeutic angiogenesis has attracted interest as an alternative treatment for ischaemic heart and peripheral disease. In parallel, the view has also gained ground that angiogenesis has an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease and its clinical sequelae. These conflicting perspectives have both been based on a large quantity of preclinical data obtained from mainly small rodent models of disease. However, in recent years further research and the results of clinical trials of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic treatments have provided new insights into the impact of VEGF and other angiogenesis-based approaches on human health and disease. This review discusses therapeutic angiogenesis in the light of recent scientific advances and clinical evidence, and considers the future challenges and prospects for therapeutic angiogenesis.

  • Coronary artery disease (CAD)
  • public health
  • gene therapy
  • growth factors

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Funding British Heart Foundation, Ark Therapeutics Ltd.

  • Competing interests IZ is a consultant to Ark Therapeutics Ltd, a company with an interest in developing gene therapy approaches for cardiovascular disease.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.