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Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: recent advances in resuscitation and effects on outcome
  1. Gavin D Perkins1,
  2. Samantha J Brace1,
  3. Mike Smythe1,2,
  4. Giok Ong1,
  5. Simon Gates1
  1. 1University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Warwick, UK
  2. 2West Midlands Ambulance Service, West Midlands, UK
  1. Correspondence to Professor Gavin D Perkins, University of Warwick, Warwick Medical School, Warwick CV4 7AL, UK; g.d.perkins{at}


Successful treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest remains an unmet health need. Key elements of treatment comprise early recognition of cardiac arrest, prompt and effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), effective defibrillation strategies and organised post-resuscitation care. The initiation of bystander CPR followed by a prompt emergency response that delivers high quality CPR is critical to outcomes. The integration of additional tasks such as defibrillation, airway management, vascular access and drug administration should avoid interruptions in chest compressions. Evidence for the routine use of CPR prompt/feedback devices, mechanical chest compression devices and pharmacological therapy is limited.

  • Ambulances
  • emergency medical services
  • heart arrest
  • intensive care
  • out-of-hospital cardiac arrest
  • resuscitation
  • sudden death

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  • Funding GDP is supported by a Department of Health National Institute of Research clinician scientist award. SJB is supported by the West Midlands south comprehensive local research network mentorship programme.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.