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Cost-effectiveness of bivalirudin versus heparin plus glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor in the treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction


Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of bivalirudin versus heparin and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (H-GPI) in patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), from a UK health service perspective.

Design Cost-utility analysis with life-long time horizon.

Main outcome measures Costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and incremental cost-effectiveness.

Methods Event risks and medical resource use data derived from the HORIZONS-AMI trial were entered into a decision analytic model. Clinical events until the end of year 1 (main model) or year 3 (alternative model) were modelled in detail. Adjustments were applied to approximate UK routine practice characteristics. Life expectancy of 1-year or 3-year survivors, health-state utilities, initial hospitalisation length of stay in the comparator strategy and unit costs were based on UK sources. Costs and effects were discounted at 3.5%.

Results The main model predicted bivalirudin and H-GPI patients to survive 11.52 and 11.35 (undiscounted) years on average, respectively, and to accrue 6.26 and 6.17 QALYs. Patient lifetime costs were £267 lower in the bivalirudin strategy (£12 843 vs £13 110). Extensive sensitivity and scenario analyses confirmed these results to be robust. In probabilistic analysis, quality-adjusted survival was higher and costs were lower with bivalirudin in 95.0% of simulation runs. In 99.2%, cost-effectiveness was better than £20 000 per QALY gained. Results from the alternative model were fully consistent.

Conclusion The use of bivalirudin instead of H-GPI in STEMI patients undergoing PPCI is cost-effective, and offers a high probability of dominance. Background treatment with aspirin and clopidogrel is assumed.

  • Myocardial infarction
  • anticoagulants
  • bivalirudin
  • cost-benefit analysis
  • United Kingdom
  • EBM
  • public health
  • epidemiology
  • clinical trials
  • coronary intervention
  • intravascular ultrasound
  • acute myocardial infarction
  • interventional cardiology
  • coronary stenting
  • excimer laser
  • cardiac imaging
  • coronary pressure
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